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1851        The 1895 Minnesota State Census is very difficulty to read. John Preiss is a six year old, white male born in Minnesota. His parents are John Preiss and Christina Eggers Preiss both born in Minnesota. John lives with his parents and six siblings: Lizzie, Clara, Emma, Lena, Fredrich, William. Also with the family is Margaret Eichmuelin Preiss, the mother of John. The family lives in Dahlgren Township, Carver County, Minnesota. [JPr 02.]
       In the 1900 U. S. Federal Census, John Preiss is a 12 year old, white, single male. He was born in Minnesota of parents who were both born in Minnesota. He reads, writes, and speaks English. He lives with his parents, Christina and John, and seven siblings: Lizzie, Clara, Lena, Freddie, Willie, Maggie, Walter. His Grandmother, Margaret, and a farm laborer, Christ Kritcian, also live in the household. The entire family lives in Dahlgren Township, Carver County, Minnesota. [JPr 05.]
       In the 1905 Minnesota State Census, which is difficult to read, John Preiss is a 16 year old, white, single male. He was born in Minnesota of parents who were both born in Minnesota. He lives with his parents, John and Christina, and six siblings: Emma, Lena, Fred, Willie, Maggie, Walter. The family lives on a farm in Dahlgren Township, Carver County, Minnesota, RFD3. [JPr 06.]
       In the 1910 U. S. Federal Census, John L. Preiss is a 21 year old, white, single male. He was born in Minnesota of parents that were also both born in Minnesota. He speaks, reads, and writes English. He considers himself a farm laborer on the home farm. He is an employee who was employed on April 15, 1910. He lives with his parents, Christina and John, and with four siblings: Fred, Maggie, William, Walter. The family lives on a farm in Dahlgren Township, Carver County, Minnesota. [JPr 07.]
REGISTRATION CARD
Name: John Preiss
Home Address: Chaska, Minnesota
Birth: July 22, 1888
Birthplace: Dahlgren Township, Carver County, Minnesota
Current Trade: Cement Contractor
Who is dependent on you>: Wife and two children
Married or Single: Married
Race: Caucasian
Military experience: None
Do you claim exemption: Yes
REGISTRAR'S REPORT
Height: tall
Slender, medium or stout: stout
Color of eyes: Blue
Color of hair: light
Bald: no
Disabled: no [JPrjr 03.]
       In the 1920 U. S. Federal Census, John L. Preiss (Jr.) is a 31 year old, white, married male. He is married to Minnie M. Schulz. He was born in Minnesota of parents who were both born in Minnesota. He reads, writes, and speaks English. He owns his own home free and clear. He works as a laborer in a sugar company. He is classified as a worker. He lives with his wife, Minnie, and two children: Mildred and Earl. The family lives in the town of Chaska, Carver County, Minnesota. [JPrjr 01.]
       In the 1930 U. S. Federal Census, John L. Preiss is a 41 year old, white, married male. He is married to Minnie Schulz. He was born in Minnesota of parents who were also born in Minnesota. he reads, writes, and speaks English. He owns his own home. And, his family lives on a farm. He has not been in school or college since Sept. 1, 1929. His occupation is that of general farming on his own farm. He is an employer; he is at work on his own farm. He is not a veteran of any war. He lives with his wife, Minnie, and five children: Mildred, Earl, Jannette, Wendell, John. The family lives in San Francisco Township, Carver County, Minnesota. [JPrjr 02.] 
Preiss, John L. (I2624)
 
1852        The 1895 Minnesota State Census is very difficulty to read. Lena Preiss is a five year old, white female born in Minnesota. Her parents are John Preiss and Christina Eggers Preiss both born in Minnesota. Lena lives with her parents and six siblings: Lizzie, Clara, Emma, John, Fredrich, William. Also with the family is Margaret Eichmuelin Preiss, the mother of John. The family lives in Dahlgren Township, Carver County, Minnesota. [JPr 02.]
       In the 1900 U. S. Federal Census, Lena Preiss is a 10 year old, white, single female. She was born in Minnesota of parents who were also born in Minnesota. She is at school and has attended school for 5 months this year. She reads, writes, and speaks English. She lives with her parents, John and Christina, and seven siblings: Lizzie, Clara, Johny, Freddie, Willie, Maggie, Walter. Her Grandmother, Margaret, and a farm laborer, Christ Kritcian, also live in the household. The entire family lives in Dahlgren Township, Carver County, Minnesota. [JPr 05.]
       In the 1905 Minnesota State Census, Lena Preiss is a 15 year old, white, single female. She was born in Minnesota of parents who were both born in Minnesota. She lives with her parents, John and Christina, and six siblings: Emma, John, Fred, Willie, Maggie, Willie. The family lives on a farm in Dahlgren Township, Carver County, Minnesota. [JPr 06.]  
Preiss, Lena (I2625)
 
1853        The 1895 Minnesota State Census is very difficulty to read. William Preiss is a one month old, white male born in Minnesota. His parents are John Preiss and Christina Eggers Preiss both born in Minnesota. William lives with his parents and six siblings: Lizzie, Clara, Emma, Lena, John, Fredrick. Also with the family is Margaret Eichmuelin Preiss, the mother of John. The family lives in Dahlgren Township, Carver County, Minnesota. [JPr 02.]
       In the 1900 U. S. Federal Census, William Preiss is a five year old, white, single male. He was born in Minnesota of parents who also were born in Minnesota. He lives with his parents, John and Christina, and seven siblings: Lizzie, Clara, Johnny, Lena, Freddie, Maggie, Walter. His Grandmother, Margaret, and a farm laborer, Christ Kritcian, also live in the household. The entire family lives in Dahlgren Township, Carver County, Minnesota. [JPr 05.]
       In the 1905 Minnesota State Census, which is difficult to read, William Preiss is an 11 year old, white, single male. He was born in Minnesota of parents who were also both born in Minnesota. He lives with his parents, John and Christina, and six siblings: Emma, John, Lena, Fred, Maggie, Walter. The family lives on a farm in Dahlgren Township, Carver County, Minnesota, RFD3. [JPr 06.]
       In the 1910 U. S. Federal Census, William Preiss is a 14 year old, white, single male. He was born in Minnesota of parents who were also both born in Minnesota. He speaks, reads, and writes English. He has no occupation. He lives with his parents, John and Christina, and four siblings: John, Fred, Maggie, Walter. The family lives on a farm in Dahlgren Township, Carver County, Minnesota. [JPr 07.]  
Preiss, William (I2627)
 
1854        The birth place of Christian Wacker is given in the Johnson Family Tree on Ancestry.com as Alt Freudental, Odessa, Russia. It has not been possible to verify or document that information as accurate. The date is also given as 16 December 1857, which I have not been able to verify. This information could be private information that the Johnson Family has. I provide it here as information that someone needs to check out if at all possible. I try as much as possible to document the information that I place into my website. While I cannot verify this information, it is information that is plausible, but it needs verification.
       On September 28, 1874, Christian and two brothers arrived in New York City on board the ship, Deutschland, from Bremen, Germany, origin Russia. They were without their parents and sisters. They arrived prior to the remainder of the family. There are questions that are raised about this situation.
What is the reason for this early departure?
Why the family split up? Was it monetary?
When these three arrived, where did they go?
Who met them in New York?
Where did they go? Who gave them directions to the Dakotas? (Carl must have known something.)
There may be other questions as well.
       Karl did know something and he wrote about it. See Karl Wacker and the document the wrote under Histories. This is important information. [KlW 03.]
       In the 1880 U. S. Federal Census, Christian Wacker is a 23 year old, white, single male. He was born in Russia of parents who were both born in Russia. He is at home. Nothing further is given in the census record. He lives with his parents, Henry and Catherine, and two sisters: Barbara and Magdalene. The family lives in Bon Homme County, Dakota Territory. [HW 01.]
       In the 1900 U. S. Federal Census, Christian Wacker (spelled Wakker) is a 43 year old, white, married male. He was born in Russia of parents who were both born in Russia. He is married to Elisabeth Kaiser and has been married to her for 18 years. He emigrated to the U. S. in 1874 and has lived in the United States for 26 years. He is a naturalized citizen. He is employed as a salesman of dry goods. He has not been unemployed. He reads, writes, and speaks English. He owns his own home free and clear. He lives with his wife, Elisabeth, and six children: Paulina, Helena, Hulda, Clara, Edmund, Minna. The family lives in Township 99, Range 56, Hutchinson County, South Dakota, in an unincorporated village, Freeman Town. [ChW 01.]
       In the 1910 U. S. Federal Census, Christian Wacker is a 56 (?) year old, white, married male. He is married to Elisabeth Kaiser Wacker and has been married to her for 27 years. According to this census taker and the information given him, Christian was born in Germany of parents who were both born in Germany, all of whom speak German. This fact is in doubt since other information suggests he was born in Russia. However, the reader will either have to make up his/her mind or do more research on the issue. Christian speaks, reads, and writes English. He is a retail Merchant, who runs a department store. He is an employer. He owns his own home, free and clear. He lives with his wife, Elisabeth, and seven children: Helen, Hulda, Clara, Edmund, Minna, Freda, Ruth. The family lives in the unincorporated village of Garrison, Township 141, range 14, McLean County, North Dakota. [ChW 02.]
       In the 1915 North Dakota Census, there is not much information provided. Christian Wacker is a foreign born male. He is living with his wife, Elizabeth, also foreign born, a daughter Helen, who is between 20 and 60, a son Edmund, between 5 and 20, and three daughters, between five years and 20, all white. The family lives in Garrison, McLean County, North Dakota. [ChW 07.]
       In the 1920 U. S. Federal Census, Christian Wacker is a 60 year old, white, married male. He was born in Russia of parents who were also born in Russia. Both he and his parents spoke German. He owns his own home free and clear. He immigrated in 1875 and is a naturalized citizen. He reads, writes, and speaks English. He has no employ at the present moment. He lives with his wife, Elizabeth, and two daughters, Elfrieda and Ruth. The family lives in the city of Garrison, McLean County, North Dakota. [ChW 05.]
       In the 1925 North Dakota State Census, Christian Wacker is a 68 year old, white foreign born male. He lives with his wife, Elizabeth, a white, 60 year old, foreign born female. Two children live with them: Helen, 20-60 year old female whose actual age is not give, Ruth, 17, in the 5-20 year old category. The family lives in Garrison, McLean County. [ChW 08.]
       In the 1930 U. S. Federal Census, Christian Wacker is a 71 year old, white, married male. He was born in Russia of parents who were also born in Russia. He spoke German before entering the United States. This census record indicates that immigration took place in 1883, eight year later that in the last census record. I would tend to believe the earlier record. It also indicates that he is a naturalized citizen. He owns his own home that is valued at about $4,000. He is married to Elizabeth Kayser. That marriage took place when he was about 23 years old or in about 1879. He is able to read, write, and speak English. Christian is not employed in any occupation at this time. He lives with his wife, Elizabeth, and two daughters, Helen and Ruth. The family lives in Garrison, McLean County, North Dakota. [ChW 06.] 
Wacker, Christian (I2408)
 
1855        The birth place of Elisabeth Kayser is given in the Johnson Family Tree on Ancestry.com as Johannesfeld, Odessa, Russia. It has not been possible to verify or document that information as accurate. The date is also given as 8 Jan 1865, which I have not been able to verify. This information could be private information that the Johnson Family has. I provide it here as information that someone needs to check out if at all possible. I try as much as possible to document the information that I place into my website. While I cannot verify this information, it is information that is plausible, but it needs verification. The death certificate from North Dakota, informed by Edmund Wacker, the son of Elizabeth Kayser, does verify the date correctly. However, another place is given - Alexanderhilf, Russia, as the place of birth.
       In the 1900 U. S. Federal Census, Elisabeth Kayser Wacker (spelled Wakker in the census) is a 35 year old, white, married female. She was born in Russia of parents who were both born in Russia. She has been married to Christian Wacker for 18 years and probably became a naturalized citizen of the U.S. at the time of marriage. She emigrated to the United States in 1878 and has lived in the U. S. for 22 years. She has given birth to seven children, six of whom are still living in 1900. She has no occupation outside the home. She reads, writes, and speaks English. She lives with her husband, Christian, and six children (Paulina, Helena, Hulda, Clara, Edmund, Minna). The family lives in Township 99, Range 56, Hutchinson County, South Dakota, in an unincorporated village, Freeman Town. [ChW 01.]
       In the 1910 U. S. Federal Census, Elisabeth Kayser Wacker is a 48 year old, white, married female. She is married to Christian Wacker and has been married to him for 27 years. She has given birth to nine children, eight of whom are still living at the time of the census. According to this census take and the information given him, Elisabeth was born in Germany of parents who were both born in Germany, all of whom speak German. This fact, that is the fact of birth, is in doubt since other information suggest she was born in Russia. however, the reader will either have to make up his/her mind or do more research on the issue. Elisabeth reads, writes, and speaks English. She has no employ outside the home. She lives with her husband, Christian, and seven children: Helen, Hulda, Clara, Edmund, Minna, Freda, Ruth. The family lives in the unincorporated village of Garrison, Township 141, range 14, McLean County, North Dakota. [ChW 02.]
       There is not a lot of information in the 1915 North Dakota Census. Elizabeth Kayser Wacker is a foreign white female. She lives with her husband, Christian Wacker, a white foreign male, and a daughter between 20 and 60, Helen, a son, Edmund, between 5 and 20, and three daughters between five years and 20. All of the children are native born. The family lives in Garrison, McLean County. [ChW 07.]
       In the 1920 U. S. Federal Census, Elizabeth Kayser Wacker is a 53 year old, white, married female. She was born in Russia of parents who were both also born in Russia; all three spoke German natively. Elizabeth immigrated to the U. S. in 1879 and became a naturalized citizen. She speaks, reads, and writes English. She has no occupation outside the home. She lives with her husband, Christian, and two daughters, Elfrieda and Ruth. The family lives in Garrison, McLean County, North Dakota. [ChW 05.]
       In the 1925 North Dakota State Census, Elizabeth Kayser Wacker is a 60 year old, foreign born female. She lives with her husband, Christian Wacker, a 68 year old, white, foreign born male. She also lives with with two children: Helen, whose specific age is not listed, but who is categorized as a 20-60 year old, white female. The other child is Ruth, 17, listed as between five and 20. The family lives in Garrison, McLean County. [ChW 08.]
       In the 1930 U. S. Federal Census, Elizabeth Kayser Wacker is a 65 year old, white, married female. She was born in Russia of parents who were also born in Russia. Prior to coming to the United States, she spoke German. Elizabeth is married to Christian Wacker. They married when she was 17 years old. She is not in school, but she reads, writes, and speaks English. According to this census record, immigration took place in 1888, nine years later than in the previous census record. I would tend to believe the earlier record. She is a naturalized citizen. She has no occupation outside the home. Elizabeth lives with her husband, Christian, and two daughters, Helen and Ruth. The family lives in Garrison, McLean County, North Dakota. [ChW 06.]
 
Kayser, Elizabeth (I2409)
 
1856        The birthdate for John is calculated from the death record. 1731-81=1650.
       The death record reads:
              Holbrook, John, May 3, 1731 [h. Abigael] a. 81, G.R.2 
Holbrook, John (I2340)
 
1857        The name Robert Lange with the middle initial, M., is found in the 1910 U. S. Federal Census. It could be assumed that the M. stands for Michael, the middle name of his father, Johann Michael Lange. [DLL]
       There seems to be relatively little known about Robert Lange, probably because he died relatively early in the lives of those who are still alive [cousins in 2002]. If the Family Tree Maker Family Archives CD# 356 refers to this Robert Lange, he arrived in the US in 1883, probably New York City, aboard the SS Hammonia in steerage. [This date seems correct since Robert's birth date is 1865 and the Robert Lange of the record was 18 years of age.]
       The SS Hammonia III was built for the Hamburg America Line by J. G. Thompson of Glasgow. It was launched on 13 September 1882, weighing 3, 969 tons, 373 feet X 34 feet, with a straight bow, two funnels, three masts. It was made of steel; its propulsion was by screw with a service speed of 15 knots. It accommodated 150 people in first class, 100 in second class and 700 in third class. Its maiden voyage was February 28, 1883 and its last voyage was on November 10, 1889. [JosL 02.]
       U.S. National Archives & Records Administration searches found Robert Lange arriving on April 25, 1883 on the SS Hammonia in New York; the ship departed from Hamburg, then Le Havre prior to arrival in New York. The ship's manifest identification number was 80349.
       The record for Robert Lange reads as follows:
Last Name: Lange
First Name: Robert
Age: 18
Sex: Male
Occupation: Laborer
Literacy: Unknown
Country of Origin: Saxony Altenburg
City/Town of Last Residence: Unknown
Destination City/Country: USA
Transit and/or Travel Compartment: Staying in the USA [Transit] Steerage [travel]
Manifest Identification Number: 80349 [RL 13.]
       An actual copy of the page of the SS Hammonia manifest with Robert Lange's information on it is included in the notebook under Robert Lange. [RL 08.]
       According to the undocumented obituary, after coming to the United States in 1881 [1883], he lived for a year in Ripon, Wisconsin. He was a farmer who had six sons and a daughter. He lived for almost ten years in South Dakota. There is conflicting information in his undocumented obituary and that of his wife, Emilie. His obituary indicates that he lived in South Dakota from 1881 to 1891; her obituary indicates that they moved to South Dakota after they were married and lived there for ten years before returning to Fairchild, Wisconsin, probably early in the period 1900-1910. I tend to believe the latter since Dale Lange's father, Max, was born in South Dakota in 1899; he was the next to youngest in the family. Ella, Arthur, Paul, Walter, and Otto were also born in South Dakota. Only Armin was born in Wisconsin. However, the former could also be true, since the marriage certificate indicates that when they were married, he was a farmer in Madison, South Dakota.
       The gravestone for Robert Lange reads Robert Lange, Sr. The "Senior" distinguishes this Robert Lange from a nephew, Robert H. Lange, son of Herman Lange.
       Judith Anne Schlegelmilch (Macke) [JAS 01] ways: "My mother (Loris) remembers her grandfather, Robert, as being strict and didn't play with the children, but would always give them a piece of chocolate when they left. They always looked forward to the candy."
       In the 1900 U.S. Federal Census, Robert Lange, a white, 35 year old, married male, lives with his wife, Ameila [sic] and six children: Ella, "Archie," Otto, Paul, Walter, and Max, the latter being just a baby in Lake County, Wentworth Township, South Dakota. His birthday is in July; he was born in 1865; has been married for nine years. Robert was born in Germany of parents who were both born in Germany. He immigrated to the United States in 1880; he has been in the U.S. for 20 years; and, he is a naturalized citizen. He is a farmer, has not been unemployed in past months. He speaks, reads, and writes English. He owns his farm. [RL 07.]
       Robert Lange became a naturalized citizen on December 26, 1905 in Black River Falls, Jackson County, Wisconsin [RL 10]. Emelie became a naturalized citizen at the same time, according to Emily Peters of the Murphy Library-Special Collections, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, letter dated 01/30/2006: "Until 1922 women automatically achieved citizenship when her husband naturalized, or when they married a citizen. Also, since women could not vote until after 1919, many single women probably didn't bother to naturalize, as there was no practical reason to do so." [RL 11.]
       In the 1905 Wisconsin State Census, Robert Lange is a 40 year old, white, married male. He is married to Emilie Zech. He was born in Germany of parents also born in Germany. His occupation is that of farmer. He owns his own farm. He lives with his wife, Emilie, and seven children: one daughter, Ella, and six sons - Arthur, Otto, Paul, Walter, Max, and Armin [Armie]. They live in Cleveland Township, Jackson County, Wisconsin. [RL 12.]
       In the 1910 U. S. Federal Census, Robert M. Lange is a 45 year old, white, married male. He has been married to Emilie Zech for 19 years. He was born in Germany (Posen) of parents who were also born in Germany (Posen). He entered the United State in 1882 and is a naturalized citizen. He reads, writes, and speaks English although his native language was German. His occupation is that of farmer working in the area of general farming. He owns his own farm, free and clear. He lives with is wife, Emilie, and seven children (Ella, Arthur, Otto, Paul, Walter, Max, Armin) in Cleveland Township, Jackson County, Wisconsin. [RL 09.]
       Robert Lange and Amelia [Emilie] Lange are found in the 1920 U. S. Federal Census [RL 04]. As head of the family, Robert owns his property freely; is male, white, 54 years old, and married. If I read the record correctly because it is blurry, the record states that he arrived in the United States in 1884; he became a naturalized citizen as of 1904; he reads, writes, and speaks English, but not as his first language; his first language is German. He was born in West Prussia, as were both his mother and father, who both spoke German; he has no particular trade. [RL 04.] Only two children reside with them, Paul W. Lange and Max Lange, my father. Robert, Amelia, Paul, and Max live in Cleveland Township, Jackson County, Wisconsin.
       In the 1930 U.S. Federal Census, Robert Lange is head of household with only himself and his wife. No children are present at this time. It is two years prior to the death of Robert and nine years prior the death of Emilie [Amelia]. They live in the town of Fairchild, no longer on a farm. Robert is a married, white, 65 year old male. According to the record, he married at age 25. He speaks, reads, and writes English although his first language was German. He owns his home, has a home worth $1,400 and he owns a radio. He was born in Germany of parents who were also born in Germany. The record indicates that he immigrated to the U.S. in 1881 (1883?) and that he is a naturalized citizen. Since there is not an occupation listed, in fact the slot states "none," it is assumed that he is retired from farming. [RL 06.]
        
Lange, Robert M. (I4)
 
1858        The note in the Hingham records, indicating when Michael Pierce arrived in the New World, reads: "1647 Michael Pearse (slain by the Indians in 1676)." [MJP 01.] This note is so far the most precise indication of when Michael Pierce arrived in the New World. However, Hobart could have recorded the date as 1647 when M. Pierce actually arrived earlier. I make this statement because the daughter of Michael, Persis was born January 07, 1646. If this birth is accurately recorded, then Michael would have had to arrive at the latest by 1645 with marriage in 1645. The question of M. Pierce's arrival in 1647 is severely questioned by the birth of his daughter, which is January 07, 1646/47. I have not found a marriage date for M. Pierce and Persis Eames. - DLL
       However in Lincoln, George. (1893). History of the Town of Hingham, Massachusetts. Vol. III. Hingham, MA: Published by the Town, pp 108-09. [Reprint: Higginson Book Company, Salem, MA.], there is an indication that Michael may have lived in HIngham as early as 1645 [see below]:
       PEIRCE (Pierce; Pearce; Perse).
       Michael, appears to have been a resident of Hing. between 1645 and 1666. In 1647 he purchased lands in the Conihasset. His first w., whose name I have not ascertained, d. in Hing. 31 Dec. 1662. A few yrs. after he removed to Scit., and took a sec. w., whose dhiris. name was Ann. "He was a captain of great bravery, and in Philip's War commanded a company of fifty Englishmen, and twenty friendly Indians fromn Cape Cod at the Pawtucket fight in Rehoboth, where on the 27th of March, 1676, he and most of his command were killed." (Dean's "History of Scituate.")
       Ch., mentioned in his will, and prob. b. in Hing., were --
       i. Persis, bt. in Hing. Jan. 7, 1645-46; prob. m. 1695, Richard Garrett of Scit. [This is NOT correct as the last child of Michael and Persis Eames was born Dec. 26, 1662, a second Persis. She married Richard Garrett. --DLL]
       ii. Benjamin, ---. Not in Hing.rec's. "Captain;" d. at Scit., 1730, aet. ab. 73 yrs.
       iii. John, ---. Inherited land in Hing. by will.
       iv. Ephriam, birth not recorde in Hing.
       v. Elizabeth, birth not recorded in Hing.
       vi. Deborah, birth not recorded in Hing.
       vii. Anna, bt. in Hing. May 9, 1665
       viii. Abigail, bt. in Hing. May 9, 1665. m. Samuel Holbrook.
       ix. Abiah, ---.
       x. Ruth, ---
       Note. --- One dau, was b. in Hing. Dec. 26, 1662. [MJP 16.]
       (Mary Pierce Holbrook, not mentioned here, is mentioned in a typed version of Michael's original will [MJP 09, p. 129] and her name is visible in a photocopy of the original [MJP 15]. Deborah Pierce is not mentioned in Michael's will.)
       Below is one of several biographical sketches for Michael Pierce.
       Deane, Samuel. (1831). History of Scituate, Massachusetts, From Its First Settlement to 1831. Boston: James Loring; pp. 406, with Index. [Reprinted Bicentennial Edition by Scituate Historical Society, 1975.] Here, the Michael Pierce story is told in the following manner:
       Capt. MICHAEL PIERCE
had been a resident at Hingham or Weymouth, before he came into Scituate. He purchased lands in the Conihassett, 1647. His house was on the Cohasset road, one mile from the present north Meeting house, at the well known place where Elijah Pierce now resides, of the sixth generation that has possessed it.
       There is no record of Capt. Pierce's family here. Hobart's journal records, "Persis, daughter of Michael Pierce, baptized 1646," also "Michael Pierce's daughter born 1662 and Michael Pierce's wife died 1662." His first child may have been born at Hingham. Persis married Richard Garrett, 3d. 1695. Abigail married Samuel Holbrook 1682. He had a son Ephraim, who died early or removed.
       Benjamin married Martha, daughter of James Adams, 1678, (error - John Adams, the brother of James and Jane James were her parents) and succeeded to his father's residence. His children, Martha, Jerusha, Benjamin, Ebenezer, Persis, Caleb, Thomas, Adams, Jeremiah, Elisha, born from 1679-1699.
       John (also son of Capt. Michael) settled north of the Conihassett burying ground. He married Patience, daughter of Anthony Dodson, 1683; his children, Michael, John, Jonathan, Ruth, Jael, David, Clothier, born from 1684 to 1698.
       Hayward Pierce, Esq. late of Scituate, descended from Capt. Michael, through Benjamin (who married Martha Adams), Benjamin, who married Charity Howard and Jane Howard of Bridgewater, 1742 and 1750, daughters of Thomas. The sons of Hayward, Esq. are Hayward of New Orleans, Waldo and Bailey of Frankfor, (Maine), Elijah of Sciuate, (on the parternal residence), Silas of Boston, --and his daughters, the wives of Mr. Lincoln of Cohasset, Mr. Nathaniel Cusing, and Mr. Walter Foster of Scituate. Benjamin and Johathan, brothers of Hayward, Esq. removed to Chesterfield.
       Capt. Michael has left evidence on record in the Town, of his usefulness in publick affairs. But his memory is to be forever honored for the brave manner in which he fell in defence of his country. (See Military affairs).
       He was in the Narragansett fight in December 1675, and escaped with his life, but to fall in a more terrible conflict in March following. His will is dated 1675; and the preamble is in these impressive words: "Being, by the appointment of God, going out to war against the Indians, I do ordain this my last will and Testament: and first I commit my was to the Eternal God, &c." He then gives "to wife Ann [she was a second wife] the house which I last buildt, &c. To son Benjamin my present dwelling house -- To son John all my lands in Hingham -- to son Ephraim 5£ --to daughter Abigail Holbrook 5£ -- to daughters Elizabeth, Deborah, Ann, Abiah, Ruth, Persis, 50£ each." [MJP 14.]
       In a biographical sketch of Harvey Hunter Pratt (The Early Planters of Scituate: a History of the Town of Scituate, Massachusetts from Its Establishment to the End of the Revolutionary War. Scituate, MA: The Scituate Historical Society, 1929; pp. 325-29; MJP 02), the sketch describes Michael Pierce's life from 1647 through his death, but focuses on his life span in the New World, leaving his death as soldier to another part of the book. It reads as follows:
       "Capt. Michael Peirce the ancestor of this old Scituate family is generally credited with being here in 1647 when he bought land on the "Country Road" from the Conihasset partners.
       He was originally of Little Hingham (Cohassset) and certainly did not erect the home on his Scituate farm until after 1663 as is evidenced by the following receipt recorded by him (PCR [Plymouth Colony Records] IV, p. 89) in 1665:
"November 5th 1663.
Received by us Cornett Robert Stetson
and James Torrey of Scituate
of Micail Peirse of Hingham
the full and just sume of twenty
pounds for the use of Josiah Leich--
field of Scituate aforesaid;
which twenty pounds the said
Micaell Peirse was apoointed
to pay unto us for the use of
Josiah Leichfield afaoresaid by
the Court hold at N. Plymouth
in New England in the month
of June last past. In witness
wee have hereunto sett our
hands this day and yeare
first above written.
The marks of X Cornet Robert Stetson
James Torrey"
       "If there remains any doubt of the correctness of the assumption that Peirce did not come to Scituate to dwell until this time, it would seem to be set at rest by the entry which the "Bench" at Plymouth caused to be entered upon the records on June 5, 1666 (PCR, IV, p. 127) when it cashiered Captain Cudworth and the latter suggested "Mr. Peirse" for the place at the head of the Scituate train band from which he had been deposed. The Court replied--
       "and alsoe concerning Mr. Peirse we have not to object to him but that hee is a stranger to us."
Such a state of ignorance on the part of the Court to which Cornet Stetson and Isaac Chittenden were deputies could not have existed had Peirce been then of Scituate. It is readily understood however if he was a resident of Hingham in the colony of Massachusetts Bay.
       All of his nine children were born in Hingham. His wife died (1662) in bearing him the youngest Elizabeth and between this date and 1666 he had erected his home on the Egypt farm purchased from the Conihasset partners. Nine generations of his descendants have dwelt upon and tilled these same acres. Silas, the third of that name, occupying it at this writing. there is an element of devotion in this, frequently found in Pilgrim and Puritan families, but seldome in so marked a degree as the Peirce family. It began with Benjamin Peirce, son of Michael, who by the will of his father, made just before the latter started for Rhode Island in Phillip's War where he was soon to meet his death, came into possession of the homestead.
       In that will, of which Benjamin was made Executor, very generous legacies were given so that the Court "not knowing whether there will remain so much cleare estate, when debts and the widdowes mainenance are discharged out of the same, as will amount to salve the executor's portion intended by his father," made an appropriate order with the consent of the rest of the children by which the homestead was "salved" to the eldest son and to his descendants for two hundred and forty years.
       Before coming to Scituate Michael Peirce had upland assigned to him at White Head at Cohasset and a corresponding appropriate acreage of meadow in the first division. He also bought from William James Conihasset marshlands which had originally been allotted to John Woodfield. Beside the homestead at Egypt he build a second house which was given in his will to his widow, a second wife whom he had married but a few years before.
       His first public office was that of constable to which he was elected in 1667. By 1669 he had apparently become sufficiently well known to the colony court to be approved as captain of the Scituate military company. It was in this kind of public service that his abilities were especially conspicuous. His courage and constancy were brilliant in a company of brave and religious men. No greater tribute to his memory can be paid than the simple story of his death already told in these pages. He had demonstrated his willingness to surrender his individual interests to those of the public long before he sacrificed his life at Rehoboth for the safety of his colony. The occasion first arose in a contemplated expedition against the Dutch in 1673 when Peirce having married a second time was living comfortably on his farm surrounded by a family of growing children.
       In August, a fleet of vessels which had been set fourth by the United Netherlands and "his Serene Highness the Lord Prince of Orange to do all manner of damages unto their enemies both by water and land," appeared in the Hudson River and threatened the eastern end of Long Island which was then English populated. The Governor and Council of Connecticut relying upon the assistance of the Confederation (although the Commissioners from the other colonies were not at the time consulted) sent two of their number to the "commander-in-chief" bearing a letter in which they sought to know "your further actions." The communication states:--
       "And we must let you know that we and our confederates the United Colonies of New England are by our Royal Sovereign Charles the 2nd, made keepers of his subject's liberties in these parts, and do hope to acquit ourselves in that trust through the assistance of Almighty God, for the preservation of his Colonies in New England."
       This was on August seventh. As soon as the Commissioners could be called together they met at Hartford and ratified the action of the Connecticut authorities. It took until December to obtain action by the other colonies. Plymouth responded with one hundred men (PCR V, p. 135 et seq.). Captain Cudworth was placed at the head of the expedition but declined. Peirce was next in command as ensign at four shillings a day.
Although the commander of the fleet responded to the note of the Connecticut governor confirming his beliefs and fears as to his intentions, and stated:--
       "We do well believe that those that are set for keepers of his Majesty's of England's subjects will quite themselves as they ought to do for the preservation of the Colonies in New England; however we shall not for that depart from our further resolutions."
       The Plymouth men never left on the expedition. Despite elaborate preparations had made for it. Events had demonstrated that there was no occasion for Peirce services or for the departure of his command. The recital of the incident is of value as showing the readiness of this primitive militiaman to answer with his services when the call came, whether from his neighbors or the King's liege subjects in a distant colony, in the common defense. His prompt disposition on this occasion stands out the more attractively when compared with the refusal of Cudworth "to serve his country with the inevitable ruin and destruction of his own family." (The words are from Cudworth's letter to Governor Winslow, declining the command of the expedition.)
       Captain Peirce was not enrolled as a freeman until 1670. His civil activities were confined to servicing on the grand and coroner's inquests, as surveyor of highways and as selectman in the years 1672 and 1673.
       Like so many of the contemporaries of Capt. John Williams he did not escape embroilment with that ready litigant. In 1672 he with John Cushing and Jeremiah Hatch were sued by the former because as selectmen they had entertained an action brought by Captain Cudworth against him. Again when William Rogers and the owner of the Cedar Point farm were litigating over damages alleged to have been done to Williams property by his servant, William's brother-in-law Anthony Dodson, had appeared as a witness. Capt. Peirce was present at the trial and heard Dodson's testimony. He said that the latter had "either lyed horribly or notoriously or forsworne himself." Thereupon he himself was promptly sued; but an amicable adjustment was reached without a trial. It may have been that this settlement was effective in another respect. for when John, the second son of Captain Peirce became of age, he married Patience, the amiable daughter of Anthony Dodson." [MJP 02.]
       On page 175, Pratt describes the part in which Michael Pierce played in King Philip's War:
       "In March 1676 Captain Peirce marched to Patuxet where, he was given to understand, the Indians were gathered in a large force. Hubbard (Hubbard's Indian Wars (Drake's ED. 1865) Vol I Page 173) says of him:--"he being a Man of Resolute Courage, was willing to engage them, though upon never so great Disadvantage." It was this very resolute, not to say reckless, courage which was his undoing. Being apprehensive of the danger he confronted he dispatched a messenger to Providence to Capt. Edmunds for reinforcements. Aid from this quarter was not forthcoming however (See Hubbard, same volume, p. 175) and with his own meagre command he found the enemy and gave them battle. No sooner was the engagement commenced than he discovered that they largely out-numbered his own force. The Indians dissembled by crossing the river and Peirce followed in hot pursuit. This was as the enemy had planned; they led him into ambush. Once on the opposite bank, he was assailed from all around and all were slain." [MJP 06.]
       This is Pratt's account, which provides a general view of what happened. There are other details to include, which some of the other accounts give.
       For more modern accounts,see Schultz, E. B., & M. J. Tougias, King Philip's War: The History and Legacy of America's Forgotten Conflict. Woodstock, VT: The Countryman Press, pp. 276-81. Another account that I would recommend is Philbrick, Nathaniel. (2006). Mayflower. New York: Viking. 462 pp. An 18th century account, revised and printed in 1851, based on the accounts of Benjamin Church, is Church, Thomas, with notes and appendix by Samuel G. Drake. (1851). The History of the Great Indian War of 1675 to 1676, Commonly Called Philip's War. Also The Old French and Indian Wars, From 1689-1701. Hartford, Connecticut: Clearfield. 360 pp.
       Although I have requested permission to quote from the Schultz and Tougias book for this website, I was denied permission. Therefore, the reader will have to pursue the story of Michael Pierce in Schultz and Tougias for him/herself.
       There is much more to this story to be found in many sources. Shultz and Tougias suggest that at the beginning of King Philip's war, there were certain tensions between and among the settlements if not colonies and the British Crown. This war brought the English in the New World together for the next 100 years, until the Revolutionary War, before they sought independence from England.
       Pictures of Pierces Park, Nine Men's Misery Monument, and a 1992 plaque can be found here for Michael Pierce. They were taken by Tim Pierce, a very distant cousin, through one of Michael's children other than through my line, Benjamin. [DLL.]

THE WILL OF MICHAEL PIERCE OF SCITUATE

       Scittuate in the Government of New Plymouth 1675 January the 15. I, Michael Peirse, of Scittuate in the Government of New Plymouth in American, being now by the appointment of God goeing out to warr against the Indians, doe make this my Last Will and Testament. First I doe comitt my selffe and wayes unto the eternall God; nextly concerning that estate which God has blessed mee with, I thus depose:
       First, I give unto my beloved wife, Annah Peirse, dureing her life the westward of my now dwelling house in Scittuate aforsaid which I last built to dwell in and the bed in it with what appertaines to it, to use and dispose of as shee shall see cause; and the one halfe of my other houshold stuffe for her use dureing her life; and then to be desposed offe to my children as shee shall see cause. Alsoe my will is that for my wife's yeerly maintainence that my son, Benjamine Peirse, shall pay unto here twelve pounds per year, one halfe in money and the other halfe in provisions, and alsoe sufficient fierwood for her use in the house during her life.
       And I give unto my son, Benjamine aforsaid, my now dwelling house and barne in Scittuate aforsaid and all the land which I have in Scittuate exceptin that I bought of Benjamine Bates of Hingham and that which I bought of William James of Scittuate and except in the abovesaid westerly end of my abovesaid house during my wife's life as abovesaid; out of which abovesaid estate in house and lands given unto my son Benjamine, hee shall pay unto my aforsaid wife for her maintainance twelve pounds a yeer as abovesaid dureing her life and sufficient fierwood alsoe as abovesaid.
       And I give unto my son, John Peirse, all my lands in Hingham in the Massachusetts and my land in Scittuate which I bought of William James of Scittuate, paying out of it to my son Ephraim's two children, Azrikam Peirse and Ephraime Peirse, to each of them fifteen pounds att the age of twenty and opne yeers, provided that neither my son Ephraim aforsaid, nor either of his after him or by or under him shall goe about to molest my said son John, of or upon the accompt of the three or four acrees of meddow land in Hingham aforsaid which my father, James gave unto my said son Ephraim, which is not yett soe fully confeirmed to mee as by my son Ephraim's promise it should have bine.
       Alsoe I give unto my aforsaid son, Benjamine, all my moveable estate in cattle and boates and houshold goods and such like excepting that which I have desposed of to my wife as abovesaid; out of which said moveable estate my said son, Benjamine, shall pay these legacyes which I give to my children as followeth:
       First: I give unto my son Ephraime Peirse, five pounds. I give unto my daughter Abigaill Holbrook, five pounds. I give unto my daughter, Elizabeth Peirse, thirty pounds. I give unto my daughter, Sarah Peirse, thirty pounds. I give unto my daughter, Annah Peirse, fifty pounds. I give unto my daughter, Mary Holbrook, twenty pounds. I give unto my daughter, Abiah Peirse, thirty pounds. I give unto my daughter, Peirsis Peirse, fifty pounds. Alsoe, I give unto my grandchild, Elizabeth Holbrook, five pounds to be payde her by my son, Benjamine aforsaid, att her day of marriage or 21 yeers old. Alsoe I give to my grand child, Abigaill Holbrook, five pounds to be paidd her by my son John Peirse afrsaid, att her day of marriage or twenty one yeers of age.
       Also my will is that if it should please God that my beloved wife aforsaid should be visited with lamenes or sickness soe that the abovesaid 12 pounds per yeare be not sufficient to maintaine her in comfortable manor, that then what shalbe [thought] meet by my Overseers to be added for her comfortable maintainance [to be] equally payed her yeerly by my son, Benjamine Peirse, and my son, John Peirse, out of that estate which I have given them as aforsaid. Alsoe I make my [wife] abovesaid my Executrix and my son, Benjamine Peirse abovesaid, my Executor to thyis my last Will and Testament. And alsoe I, the abovesaid Michaell Peirse [do request] my trusty and welbeloved frinds, Cornet Robert Studson and Isacke [manuscript torn] and my Brother, Marke James, and my Brother, Charles Stockbridge, to be Overseers to this my abovesaid Last Will and Testament, to be Overseers to this my abovesaid Last Will and Testament. In witnes wherof [I have] sett my hand and seal this fifteenth of January 1675.
       Michael Peirse

Witnesses
       Benjamine Woodworth
       Charles Stockbridge

By reason of the dangerousness of the times and [manuscript torn] there wilbe a Court in July next; and the parties [state] that delayes may be prejudiciall to the estate [torn] Benjamine Woodward gave oath before mee [manuscript torn] unto Michaell Peirse signing, sealing and [torn] this was testified upon oath the fift of [torn]. [MJP 09.]

INVENTORY OF MICHAEL PIERCE'S ESTATE

An Inventory of the estate of goods and chattles of Michael Peirse, deceased, taken by us whose names are underwritten the 20th of Aprill 1676.

By his wearing clothesm house (stockings), purse, besides[som] are said to be left att Seconke
A bed, bolster & green rugg and 2 blanketts
A new bed, a new bolster and cotton rugg and a
blankett and coverlidd
Four pillowes
Seven paire of sheets, one with the other
One fine table cloth, 7s and 5 course table cloths
Six course towells
Two dosen of new napkins
Six pillow bears
Two new napkins
Four pillowes
Three paire of fine sheets
Five pillow bears and 1 towell
A coverlidd
Pewter of severall sorts
Eight napkins
A cubberd
Tin ware and an iron candlestick
Three brasse skilletts & 2 skillets & a warming pan
A brasse morter and iron pestell
Two iron potts and 2 iron kettles
A paire of brandirons and 2 tramells
Two fier shoells and three paire of tonggs and a gridiron
A spitt & driping pan and smoothing iron
Two flock bedds & a feather bolster and sheats and blanketts
One other bed and bolster
One woole bed, bolster and blanketts
A fann
A pannell & pillion and 3 sickls
Cotton yeare
A paire of iron stilliyards
Sheeps wolle and cotten wolle,
A pierce of sole lether
Two frying pans
A hatchell
Three guns and 2 swords
A table and forme and 3 chests
Tubbs, barrells, cheirs, meale sackes, spining wheels and other lumber
Cart & wheels, plowes, plow irons, yoakes, chaines
Six oxen
11 cowes
Three 2-year olds
Three yeer olds
31 sheep and 16 lambs
Swine
A marre and a year-old colt
Two boates
Debts upon bill
Sume totle 291₤ 01s. 06d.

       [Isaac] Chettenden
       [Charles] Stockbridge

       [Annah, the relict of Michaell Peirse, gave her oath] [MJP 10]

ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATE

Plymouth Court Orders V, p. 208, 22. July 1676

Wheras the Last Will and Testament of Captaine Michaell Peirse, of Scittuate, lately slayne on the countrye's service, bearing date the 15th of January, 1675, was presented under oath to this Court, wherin Benjamine Peirse is made Exicutor, this Court, considering the large legacyes in the said Will given, and not knowing whether there will remaine soe much cleare estate, when debts and the widdowe's maintainance are discharged out of the same, as will amount to salve the said Executor's portion, intended by his father, as by the said Will is declared, doe therefore order, that the said Benjamine Peirse, Executor, shall detaine and keep in his owne hand the land mensioned in the said Will, bought of William James, being the one halfe of a six acree lott of meddow, and also one quarter parte of each legacye by the said Will given, untill the Court shall see cause otherwise to order it, on theire being satisfyed concerning the clearnes of the said estate, the Executor being appointed to pay the resedue of the said legacyes and bequest, according to the Will, in the mean time. [MJP 11.]

ADDITION TO THE INVENTORY

An addition to the inventory of the estate of Captaine Micaell Peirse, deceased, presented to the Court held att Plymouth the first of November 1676 and ordered by them heer to be recorded as followeth:

According to the advice of the Court and by the request of Benjamine Peirse and his mother, Anna Peirse, wee whose names are underwritten have valued the lands and housing that did appertaine to Captain Micaill Peirse, deceased, to be aded to the Inventory of his estate in Court.

His lands in Scittuate given to his sone, Benjamine Peirse, being by estimation about sixty acres of upland and thriteen acrees of meddow land with the hous and barne wee value att two hundred fifty pound.
And his lands in Scittuate given to his son, John Peirse, values att 50£
And his lands and rights att Hingham given to his son, John, att one hundred thiry two pounds

       The totall sume: 432£

Scituate, October the 18th 1676 by us

       John Jacob
       Charles Stockbridge



 
Pierce, Michael (I992)
 
1859 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I2254)
 
1860        There is much to know about the Wilson Brewer Family, his birth date and place, his marriage to Rhoda Stanley and Margaret Moore, the mother of some of his children (whether Rhoda or Margaret), exactly when he left Kokomo, IN, for Iowa, his real estate holdings, his personality, and his humor. The facts and the notes that are included and the questions that they raise have developed some speculation, which is also included. Some of that speculation has taken place between Dale L. Lange and Ted Crayne. Some is solely from Dale L. Lange. Some of the speculation has been cleared up and some has not. Birth dates of Wilson Brewer and Margaret Moore's children are estimates only since records in Indiana have not been sought. Other problems remain, but much more is known than in the beginning of recording information about this family. [DLL.]
       The following notes are in no particular order.
In the Warren H. Brewer book, History of Brewer Family of North Carolina, etc., the following paragraph is about Wilson Brewer [WB 29]:
       "Wilson Brewer was married on July 25th 1830 to Rhoda Stanley by Miles Marshall, J. P. in Wayne County. He later lived in or near Blountsville in Henry Co., Indiana, from which place he moved during 1850-1860 possibly to a point near Webster City, Iowa. Rhoda Stanley may have been a relative of Wm. Stanley who married Nancy Brewer."
Benjamin Roland ("Roll") Brewer's death certificate indicates that the birthplace of Wilson Brewer was Maryland. Other suggested birthplaces are Virginia and North Carolina. No one knows at this point. [DLL June 21, 2004.] Wilson Brewer's birth dates range from 1801 to 1814.
       Sarah Brewer, in her biography of Wilson Brewer in Appendix I of her book, p. 255, states that "Wilson Brewer was born in 1804, at Highcastle homestead on the James River in Virginia."
       It is possible that in the U.S. Federal Census of 1840 that the Wilson Brewer found in Jamestown Township, Wells County, Indiana is the same Wilson Brewer. I say that because the ages of the children and of his wife are approximately correct. There is another Wilson Brewer who is in Chatham County, North Carolina at the same time. I do not believe that the Wilson Brewer of this genealogy is that Wilson Brewer. Of course there is always the possibility of the third Wilson Brewer. However, the number of males and females of WB 28 matches those of the Wilson Brewer under consideration, and the ages also match quite well. Further, the correct number of children also matches. Two males 5 or under: Benjamin and John; 1 male 10 or under: Andrew J.; and, one female 5 or under: Sarah. The only thing disturbing is the age of the oldest male; it is underestimated at 30 or under. The age for Margaret Jane Moore is estimated correctly. However, I have also learned that census takers make mistakes and that people do not know when they were born. So, I am going to hypothesize that WB 28 is the Wilson Brewer here under consideration. [WB 28.]
       The U.S. Federal Census of 1850 of Howard Township, Howard County, Indiana taken on September 29, 1850 lists Wilson as 39 years of age, Jane (probably Margaret Jane), 38 years old, Andrew J., 18, Bolen or Benjamin Roland., 15, Sarah, 10, John T., 11, Julia, 5, and an unknown (?female?)child, 2. If, in fact, Wilson Brewer is 39 at this point, he would then have been born in 1811. [WB 06.] Yet, not even the birth year is clear.
       In the 1852 Iowa State Census, Wilson Brewer is listed in Cass Township of Polk County with four males and three females, one of which is a voter, assuming that is the head of family, Wilson himself. The total for the family is seven people. In this same census, there are other relatives: Nancy Stanley, probably the sister of Wilson, Nancy Brewer, whose husband has died in 1851, and a brother-in-law, Nathan Stanley. There is also a William O. Brewer that could be a brother to Wilson. I have other information about a William Brewer that will have to be processed before I can be sure. However, I believe this William later moved to Illinois. [WB 31 and DLL.]
       However, in the 1856 Iowa State Census for Boone Township, Hamilton (Webster) County, the record indicates that Wilson was 50 years old. While the record looks like 51, Nadine Dingman of Webster City, IA, a knowledgeable genealogist, tells me that what could look like a 1 is actually an unclosed 0 or u that census takers used to indicate a zero. If that is the case, then Wilson was 50 years old in 1856 and could have been born 1805-06. I have left the date of his birth between 1804-1806 in honor of Sarah Jane Brewers book, as well as the date on the Burial Mound in Brewer Park, but I think the date is probably closer to 1806. [DLL]
       If this is the Wilson Brewer family in the 1850 census, and I believe that it is, then Sarah Brewer-Bonebright's date of 1848 for the arrival of the Wilson Brewer family in Iowa may not necessarily be correct. On pp. one and two of their book, Sarah and Harriet indicate that the family left Kokomo, IN on September 15, 1848 and that it took six weeks to make the trip to what is now Hamilton County. In the preface to the book, Sarah herself says, p. xiv: "I make no claim for absolute accuracy in dates. Periods marking life epochs such as moving, building, births, weddings or deaths always were vividly impressed, and other incidents arrange themselves approximately in order." Thus, it is necessary to take the dates that Sarah gives with some flexibility. Actually, we can probably say that any record, even those that demonstrate great precision, need to be questioned, but some more than others.
In the Biographical Record and Portrait Album of Hamilton and Wright Counties, Iowa, Chicago: Lewis Biographical Publishing Co, 1889, an article about Wilson Brewer says: "Willson [sic] Brewer, one of the first settlers of Hamilton County, was a native of Virginia, but when four years old his parents moved to Henry County, Indiana, where he was reared and was there married to Margaret Moore, a native of Henry County. In 1850 they came to Iowa and settled in Hamilton County, Mr. Brewer entering Government land ten miles south of the present town of Webster City. He died in 1857, leaving a widow and eleven (?) children, five of whom are living--Benjamin R., Sarah Jane, William, Walter and Margaret. Jackson, John Thomas, Julia and Nancy are deceased. Mrs. Brewer is still a resident of Webster City, where she has made her home for so many years." [WB 01.]
       In Lee's History of Hamilton County, Iowa, p. 31, the following is stated:
       SETTLERS IN 1950
       "...In the fall of 1850 Wilson Brewer and family, and a nephew, William Brewer, and William Stanley and family arrived and settled near Bone's mill, with ox teams in covered wagons. They had a large tent which they set up. Game was so plentiful that Wilson Brewer was able to bring in a fin yearling deer and the party partook of a bountiful supper of venison.
       Wilson Brewer staked out a claim just south of the mill site, and built a cabin, but soon sold to his nephew, and coming up the river, staked out a new claim within the present boundaries of Webster City. Mr. Brewer was therefore the first settler within the present limits of Webster City." [WB 02.]
       In Lee's History of Hamilton County, Iowa, p. 53, New Castle is founded:
       NEW CASTLE
       "In the fall of 1854 Wilson Brewer and Wm. Frakes laid out the town of New Castle, now part of Webster City, and began selling lots. It was located on the west side of Boone river and consisted of eight blocks, lying between Division Street and the Illinois Central R. R. and east of Superior street as now seen on the maps of Webster City. The plat was two blocks wide and four blocks long and was the second town laid out in the county.
The laying out of this town and giving the place a name tended to bring this place into more notoriety, and homeseekers heard of it as they journeyed westward, and mad it a point to pass through on their way. Many arriving in that way being pleased with the location and surroundings concluded to stay and became permanent settlers." [WB 03.]
       In Nedra Brewer Adams' article on Edwin Wilson Brewer, she tells about the trip of Wilson Brewer and his family to Iowa: "...Wilson Brewer, together with four other families moved from Kokomo, Indiana by oxen and covered wagon. Wilson Brewer acted as leader and guide, and walked every step of the way to find the best paths around the swamps and endless sloughs. They left Indiana on September fifteenth 1848 (probably 1950) and arrived in Fort Des Moines, Iowa late in October of that same year. One of the party stayed in Fort Des Moines, lured by the cheap lots, $7.50 each, with payment a dollar a year until pair for. However, Wilson Brewer and the rest of the party continued north until they found an attractive spot on the Boone River at a site known as Bones Mill. There they built four log cabins and spent the winter.
       During the next two years the men explored the area north along the river, and in 1950, the Brewer family moved to an area near what is now the Brewer Museum. There they built a permanent log house, the first in the new town of Newcastle. Wilson chose this name because it reminded him of his boyhood home in Highcastle, Virginia.
[NB: I have not been able to find a Highcastle, Virginia. I have found a New Castle, IN which is in Perry County. It could be that Newcastle, IA was named after New Castle, IN.]
       In the summer of 1853, Wilson Brewer sent East for his nephew Amos to come and survey the area and plot the town of Newcastle. [EWB 05.]
       There were stories about Wilson Brewer that show his character, tenacity, and humor. In Lee, (1912),The History of Hamilton County, pp. 56-57, a couple of these stories are told:
       (a)Timber Stealing
       "We must not forget to mention a matter than had been going on ever since the settlement of the county but which began to be noticed about this time and that was what would now be called stealing timber off non-residents' lands. The fact was that much of the valuable timber lands had been entered by speculators who were holding it for a high price, to buy it and as the work of improving their farms could not be carried on without timber, they helped themselves to any timber not guarded by a settler...
       A story is told of Wilson Brewer that will illustrate how this thing was carried on. An eastern speculator came out to look after his property and stopped with Mr. Brewer. The next day Mr. B. took the man out to show him his land, which was timber land.
       On the way Mr. B. pointed out a piece of timber land here that he said belonged to Mr. So and So and said Mr. A. stole the timber of that; another piece belonged to another and Mr. B. stole the timber of that; finally coming to a strip of land that had evidently been well covered with timber said: This is your land and I stole the timber off of it and if you don't like it, I'll lick the h--lout of you." The fellow said he like it and returned east disgusted and let his land go to tax deed, never again paying any more attention to it. But if one settler was found taking timber belonging to another settler, it was made exceedingly torrid for him. In relation to taking speculators' timber the settlers reasoned like this: "The improvement of our land will necessarily increase the price of the speculator's land without his doing anything; therefore it is only fair that enough of his property be put into the improvements to make him pay in part at least for the cause of the advance of the price of his land," which seemed to be good logic, if it was not law... " [WB 18.]
       (b) Another "Wilse Brewer" story:
       "There had been a shooting match and "Wilse" had won a quarter of beef. That evening, before starting home, somebody stole the beef. One Beemas Hayden was accused of taking it, and Brewer having satisfied himself that he was the culprit went to his house next morning before Hayden was up and hauled him out of bed and gave him a sound thrashing. Nothing was done with Brewer for this, but Brewer went to the office of Esquire Russell and plead guilty to assault and battery and paid a fine of $5.00 on his own motion. When the grand jury sat next, they were proceeding to indict Hayden for stealing the beef. Brewer heard of it and went before the body and said that he had chastised the man sufficiently and asked that the case be dropped and the jury dropped it." [WB 18.]
       In 1855, probably because Wilson Brewer was successful as an entrepreneur, bringing people to the area, Newcastle saw considerable growth. While there was one regular hotel, the Brewers and the Beaches (?) also kept lodgers. [WB 19.]
       The death of Wilson Brewer is detailed in Brewer-Bonebright and Bonebright-Closz, pp. 257-58, as follows:
       "The immediate cause of the death of Wilson Brewer -- Founder and promoter of Newcastle -- was the effect of a knife wound inflicted by a boastful character named Prendegast.
       A presidential election bet had been made by the two men. Father wagered a twenty dollar gold coin against an overcoat of that price. After the election of James Buchanan, my father having won the bet, called upon Prendegast, in the store of Barton and Robinson on Bank and Seneca streets to fulfill the agreement, but he refused to comply with the request.
       A dispute rose. Prendegast, who was a young man, clinched my father and bent him over the counter. With a knife, which he evidently had in readiness, the assailant stabbed his victim several times in the back at the left shoulder. The clothing was cut into shreds, but only two thrusts penetrated the flesh. The wounds were not thought to be serious; and father requested that his assailant, who had been drinking, should not be taken into custody.
       A few days elapsed. When it was found that the victim's injuries would prove fatal, Prendegast eluded the officers and fled the country.
Wilson Brewer died in December 1856."
       Wilson Brewer did die in December 1856. While no death certificate has been located, the recommendation for the appointment of Andrew J. Brewer, his oldest son, by Margaret Brewer, as administrator of the estate took place on 26 December 1856. Wilson had to have died before this moment. [WB 24.] Andrew J. Brewer did formally accept the role of administrator on 29 December 1856. However, before much could have been done, Andrew J. himself died on March 07, 1857. The next oldest brother, Benjamin R. Brewer accepted the role of administrator, March 12, 1857. On January 09, 1857, a list of the personal effects of Wilson Brewer listed guns, cattle, horses, and pigs as personal effects.
       On March 06, 1866, Thomas B. Bonebright brought charges against B. R. Brewer of "waste and mal administration." B.R.'s response was submitted the next day, arguing that he was not guilty of either. He also resigned from being administrator of the estate of Wilson Brewer on the same day. [BRB 11.]
       The processing of Wilson Brewer's estate was complicated. In fact, it went on for years. As Sarah Brewer-Bonebright writes in REMINISCENCES OF NEWCASTLE, IOWA, p. 257:
       "My mother knew absolutely nothing of business methods. All legal papers -- land patents, deeds, mortgages and notes -- were delivered to the attorney, W. G. Berkley, and the administrator, A. J. Brewer, who died within two months. Much misunderstanding, interminable delays and technical tangles ensued and extended throughout the Civil war. The papers were carelessly looked after and father's holdings of land and personal property were dissipated in the adjustment and settlement of the estate." [WB 15.]
One example of claims on the estate is found in WB 16. And the group of papers that I (Dale L. Lange) have copied from the records of Hamilton County Probate indicate that the process did go on for years, even to 1875. [WB 17.] The records presented here are incomplete, but demonstrate the complexity of the estate and claims against it, as well as guardianships for the minor children of Wilson Brewer.
       Another issue was the mistaken deeding of land. The Legal Notice of 1861 [WB 23] indicates that some land that Wilson Brewer sold to Johnson and Rosanna Griffith land that had been misnumbered. This misnumbered land had then been sold to a Mr. Snodgrass who in turn had sold it to A. J. Brewer. In other words, a mess had occurred that had to be straightened out. [WB 23.]
       Forty years after the death of Wilson Brewer, his remains and remains of some of his children who died shortly after him were removed to the city cemetery. Below are three newspaper articles that relate the event:
       STANHOPE MAIL, Stanhope, IA (05 June 1897):
       Recalls an Early Tragedy
       "The remains of Wilson Brewer, one of the first white men to die in this city, after a lapse of more than forty years, were removed from the original place of interment on the hillside across the Brewer's creek bridge, at the foot of South Superior street, in the city cemetery, last Saturday. the little white-fenced enclosure had become a familiar land mark, and yet few aside from the earliest settlers were aware that that lone grave contained one of the pioneers and original owners of the beautiful site upon which this city is built -- and fewer still have knowledge of the tragic story of his death. In the Fall of 1856, Wilson Brewer, then a prosperous and hardy pioneer -- a reckless, free-hearted young man, whose word was as good as his bond -- became involved in a quarrel with a blacksmith at homer and was stabbed to death. He left a widow and a large family of children, one of whom is said to have been the first white child born in Hamilton county. History and the records of the primitive courts of justice of those early days are somewhat at variance as to the punishment of his murderer, but that he was never again seen alive in this part of the country is considered ample evidence that he was speedily and summarily punished. The remains of three children, one son and two daughters, who for many years shared this lonely resting place with their father, were also taken up and re-buried in our city cemetery on Saturday." [WB 12.]
       THE FREEMAN, Webster City, IA (02 June 1897):
"Saturday four bodies that have been buried over forty years were removed from the roadside in front of Wm. Greenwood's house to the Webster City cemetery. They were the bodies of Wilson Brewer and his three children, Nancy, Julia and John. Some pieces of the coffins were found and most of the bones were recovered and moved to the new resting place." [Julia was probably not one of these children since she appears in an 1860 U.S. Census, MJM 03.] [WB 13.]
       HAMILTON COUNTY JOURNAL, Webster City, IA (05 June 1897):
"Saturday last the bodies of Wilson Brewer and his three children, were removed from their resting place at the south end of Superior Street and re buried in this city cemetery. Brewer was one of the first white men buried in Hamilton county and was killed in a fight at homer. History does not record the fate of his slayer, but some of the oldest inhabitants have an idea what became of him." [WB 14.]

       Two articles describe the moving of the remains of the Wilson Brewer family to what is now Brewer Park in Webster City: One article is from the Daily Freeman Journal, 23 November 1934, p. 01, columns 6 & 7, continued on p. 8, column 1 & 2, "Bodies of Brewer Family, Founders of City, Moved to Site of Old Homestead." The second, the source of which I have not been able to trace, "Remains of Eight Moved to New Spot," was probably published November 23, 1934, most likely in Webster City. They are both reproduced here.
       "Bodies of Brewer Family, Founders of City, Moved to Site of Old Homestead"
       A work of much historical import in this community has just been accomplished with the removal of the bodies of Wilson Brewer and family from Graceland cemetery and their burial on a part of the old Brewer homestead where the first log cabin was erected in what is now Webster city. The Brewer family were the first white settlers in this community and Mr. Brewer was the founder of the city.
       It was 86 years ago this month - in 1848 - that the Wilson Brewer family came from Indiana to what is now Hamilton county. The party made the trip in covered wagons drawn by ox teams and were six weeks on the road. The weather was mild, however, so the family was favored on the journey. Wilson Brewer died in December, 78 years ago in 1856.
       Found Pioneer Museum
       Four years ago Frank A. Bonebright and his sister, Mrs. Harriet Carmichael, grandchildren of Mr. and Mrs. Wilson Brewer, conceived the idea of founding a pioneer museum to commemorate the methods and means of living followed by the early settlers of this community. Accordingly the hewn log cabin that had been erected by Wilson Brewer in 1850 - the second log cabin he built here - and part of another hewed cabin south of Webster City built in 1854 by the Groves family were re-erected and now house many of the pioneer belongings of early settlers.
       Two years ago this grandson and granddaughter of their pioneer ancestors tendered to the city of Webster City an eight acre tract of land - a part of the original Brewer homestead - as a park in which this pioneer museum is to be perpetuated by the city forever.
       Permission to Bury There
       Along with the acceptance of the gift by the city council, permission was given for the burial of members of the Wilson Brewer family on a site overlooking Brewer's creek where the first family cabin was built. And so this week the bodies of Wilson Brewer, his wife, Margaret, three young children, and Sarah Brewer Bonebright, her husband, Thomas, and their son, Frank Bonebright, the latter of whom died last spring, have found their final resting place in the soil they all loved and revered.
       In the short time devoted to collecting materials for the cabin museum, a varied assortment of material has been gathered. Much of it is education to the younger generation. Tales of hardships and the privations of pioneers are unknown to present day young people, but they are greatly interested in hearing about them and appreciate being permitted to the implements and utensils which were in common every day use in the homes of their ancestors.
       Keep Museum Open
       After the death of Frank A. Bonebright last spring many people thought this valuable museum might be closed, but Mrs. Carmichael has assumed charge of the historical cabin and conducts all visitors about the premises any time of the day. She wishes everyone to feel as much at home there now as visitors were at the Brewer home in pioneer days.
       School children are especially interested in the fireplace and its equipment, the spinning wheel, the old stairway, a cord bed, home made tools, iron pot tripod, mill wheel of 1859, side saddle, buffalo skulls, elk antlers, mounted goose and eagle, old books, documents, flint lock rifles, pistols, grandfather's clock and so many Indian knives, axes and ornaments that they cannot be specified.
       Children visit the museum a few times and then bring their chums to whom they explain the exhibits as they would recite a lesson. So it is to be inferred that they are interested in absorbing the historical data, which is unusually interesting for it has to do with the early history of this immediate vicinity. [The remainder of the article is a verbatim quote of the death of Wilson Brewer, reproduced above.] [WB 21.]

       "Remains of Eight Moved to New Spot"
       Transferred To Sight Of Original Homestead in Memorial Park Here
       On November 13th, 1934, Mrs. Harriet Bonebright Carmichael exercised the wishes of members of her pioneer family and removed the bodies of Wilson Brewer and wife and three children; Thomas Bonebright and Sara Brewer Bonebright, his wife and Frank A. Bonebright from Graceland Cemetery to a spot on the old homestead which was formerly the site of the original Brewer cabin. This spot was prepared by a large burial mound constructed of earth which will be seeded down and further beautified by shrubbery and two hard maple trees planted - one at each side of this mound. the large nigger-head boulder which Frank A. Bonebright; in his lifetime, secured from the Bridge Mason Farm east of town, will be placed on this mound upon which will be placed a bronze tablet indicating the historical data of this family.
       Historical Data Concerning This Pioneer Family
       Wilson Brewer, Mrs. Carmichael's grandfather, came to what is now Hamilton County, in 1848 and a few years later founded the town of New Castle, now the town of Webster City. The first permanent cabin was located on the exact spot where the burial mound "The Trail's End" and the family now finds a resting place after more than eighty-five years.
       The Pioneer Museum had long been an ambition of Frank A. Bonebright in order that the methods of living by early settlers might be retained in the minds of coming generations.
       Right in 1929, Frank and his sister Harriet Bonebright Carmichael, began a more or less active effort to collect pioneer material for the purpose above mentioned.
       The pretentious hewn log cabin (1850) which originally stood at the foot of Superior street next to Brewer's Creek, but which had been removed to a farm north of town, was generously donated by the Frohling family who owned it. It was returned to the former homestead, and together with the Groves cabin (1854) brought from south of town, these cabins were re-erected for the Pioneer Museum.
       Frank and Harriet, grandson and granddaughter of the first settler in Webster City have worked hand in hand to perpetuate pioneer ideals. The growth and popularity of the gathering of relics of olden times made it necessary to provide a means of its perpetuation; so having come into possession of the homestead, they jointly offered the acreage as a park, the cabins and contents, to the city of Webster City. The fit was graciously accepted, and in recognition of the historical significance of the location and pioneer material gathered, the City Council gave permission for the family of Wilson Brewer and the donors of the park and cabins, to be buried on the premises.
       On the site of the first permanent cabin on the bank of Brewer's Creek, facing the sun, the burial mound is located, -- there are interred the remains of Wilson Brewer, his wife, three children, Sarah Brewer Bonebright and her husband and their son, F. A. Bonebright. So here in truth is "TRAIL'S END."
       The Museum Well, you should visit it. The genial Frank, who died March 5th, 1934, will not be there to welcome you, but the doors are never closed to visitors. Mrs. Carmichael is anxious to dispense the pioneer hospitality at any time; whether convenient for her or not. The register records names of visitors from all over the United States yet there are many persons from our own town who have never seen the relics housed there.
       Fireplace, cooking utensils, spinning wheels (flax and wool), side saddles, buffalo robe, collection of 50 guns, case with a mammoth tusk, twenty-thousand or many times twenty thousand years old, according to the Iowa Historical department, which was found in the Chase gravel pit.
Indian knives, skinners, etc., found at Bone's Mill and declared to be the finest collection in Iowa that was all found in one place.
Spear heads, arrow point, game balls, Indian ceremonial pieces, fine case of tomahawks, Indian pipes, grinders, grand-father's clock 150 years old, candle molds, candle lantern, hand-made tools, broad axes, grain cradle, flail, ox-yokes, home-made boots, wooden shoes, cord bed, ash bark bottom chair and relics and mementos of pioneer days.
       Now that active collection of pioneer relics has ceased with the passing of Frank Bonebright. Any contributions to the museum will have to be made by the owners as funds as not available for purchase of mementoes or heirlooms; still Mrs. Carmichael would be glad "to receive such and will do her best to care for them."
       It is the hope and desire of many of the citizens of this community that the Wilson Brewer Memorial Park will be completed and beautified in honor of the work and efforts of this pioneer family in giving to this community this magnificent memorial, the museum and all that this part entails. [WB 22.]
       WILSON BREWER
       The Biographical Record of Hamilton County, Iowa. New York: S. J. Clarke, 1902, pp. 619-23. [WB 27.]
       As long as Webster City stands, the name of Wilson Brewer will be known to its citizens, for he was the founder of the town and was so closely associated with its beginning and with the work of development and improvement that he well deserves to be honored, and with pleasure we present the record of his life to our readers. His history, if written in detail, would largely be an account of the pioneer experiences of this portion of the state. He was born in Virginia, in 1814 [probably not Virginia; definitely not 1814 - DLL]. His parents were of English lineage and were natives of Maryland. When he was but four years of age he accompanied the family on their removal to Indiana, and there he acquired a limited education and became familiar with all the hardships sustained in life upon the frontier. When he was old enough to begin work upon his own account, he turned his attention to farming, having become familiar with the duties of field and meadow during his early youth. He married Margaret Moore, a native of Henry county, Indiana, [possibly Preble County, Ohio - DLL] and in 1850 [this date is correct -DLL] they left their home in the Hoosier state and started for Iowa, taking up their abode in Hamilton county. The journal was made in a prairie schooner drawn by ox teams. A paper read before the Old Settler's Society, in Webster City in 1891, and dictated by Mrs. Wilson Brewer, who was then seventy-three years of age, has largely furnished us with the account of the trip and the pioneer experiences. Six families, numbering forty people, had left Indiana on the 15th of September, and on the 1st of November Mr. Brewer and his family arrived in Hamilton county. They had crossed the Mississippi River at Burlington, and during the entire trip had not crossed a single railroad. Their first stop was made at Hooks' Point, now Stratford. there Mr. Brewer took his ax, dogs and gun and footed it to what is known as the Tom Williams farm. He was pleased with the site, for it afforded opportunity for the establishment of a mill there, and when he had erected a little log cabin he brought his family to the pioneer home that he had prepared. On the way to the home he cut down a tree and caught eight coons. The following year he secured a claim and removed to what is know known as the Eyer place. He afterward removed to a claim in what was called the Creek Bottom, securing land near the present site of Webster City. Later he removed to a place now called Lawn Hill, or the old steam mill site. There he cleared a portion of land and put in a crop of corn, making his home there for one year. On the expiration of that period he returned to the Eyer place, where he remained for two years, and then took up his abode at the present old home site. He lived there until 1857, when he was called to his final rest. All kinds of wild game, including deer, elk and many representatives of the feathered tribe, were to be had in abundance. In a two days' hunt on the outskirts of what is now Webster City Mr. Brewer killed twenty-seven deer.
       On one occasion the dogs caught a deer passing the house and Mrs. Brewer took his gun and shot it. It gave one bound and fell in the doorway. On the site of the present grist mill the family also kept a fish trap in the river, which was about six feet square, and every morning they found it full of fish. All supplies had to be obtained at Fort Des Moines. Trips were made in a covered wagon to that place, Mr. Brewer usually managing to take a lot of furs and venison with him to exchange, and by this means supplied his family with the necessaries of life. On one trip he was gone thirteen days, during which time his wife and her children, the eldest a boy of fifteen years, were alone. A quilt hung at the door was the only protection against the cold and against wild animals. The latter were numerous and were often fierce. Many nights Mrs. Brewer says that she retired while the wolves were howling not ten feet from the cabin. On one occasion two of her sons started on a hunting trip and a terrific storm came on, continuing for three days. The family were greatly alarmed for the safety of the boys, but afterward it was found that they had reached camp before the storm broke. While the snow fell and the winds raged they brought their calves, pigs and chickens into the cellar in order to prevent them from freezing to death. In the winter time they wished the warm weather would come, but found that it too had its drawbacks, for the mosquitoes were so numerous that the air was almost back with them, and the men working in the fields in hot weather took mushrooms, set fire to them and wore them in their hats in order to smoke away the insects. When Mr. Brewer sought a claim they found a place which he deemed suitable for the farm, and at once felled some trees and began the erection of a log cabin. They would place a few logs in position, then would build a fire in the middle so that by the time they had the logs placed the fire would have thawed out the ground and they used the mud so obtained for the plaster of the cabin. The chimney was built of sticks and mud and the cooking was entirely done from the fireplace. When a turkey or anything of that description was roasted it was hung by a twisted string from the mantle, so that it constantly whirled round as it roasted. Coffee mills were used in grinding corn for making "Johnny cake" and wheat for bread. The first table owned by the family was made of a dry goods box, and the chairs were but rude stools, blocks being fastened into three legs. Beds were made by boring a hole in the logs of the wall in which were placed poles, there were sustained at the outer side by wooden pins. The cabins were lighted by tallow candles, or some other primitive method. The candles were made by dipping a string into the grease and when it had cooled they would dip again and again until it had become of sufficient size.
       Unto Mr. and Mrs. Brewer were born eleven children: Andrew J., the eldest, married Harriet Frakes, and after his death she became the wife of John W. Lee, who is also now deceased, while the widow resides in Webster City. She had two children by her first marriage, Albert Wilson, and Andrew J., and three sons by the second union.
Benjamin R., the second member of the family, married Jane Frakes, and after he death he wedded her sister, Betsey, who is also now deceased. For his third wife he chose Julia Stone, who died, and later he married Nellie O'Roark. By his first marriage he had one child, Jane, the wife of George Carmichael, a resident of Woolstock, Iowa. To the second marriage came one daughter, Maggie, who married Frank Ellis. Four children were born of the third marriage, and one by the fourth.
       Sara Jane, the third member of the family of Wilson Brewer, was born in Indiana, August 27, 1839, and was married May 2, 1858 to Thomas Bonebright, who was born November 29, 1836, and their marriage was celebrated in Webster City, where they resided for a time and them removed to a farm in Wright county, Iowa, near Woolstock. There was built a log house and a poem has been written about this old log cabin by their daughter, Harriet M. Closz. There Mr. and Mrs. Bonebright lived until 1864, when they returned to Webster City, taking up their abode upon a part of the old Brewer homestead, which has since been their place of residence, where Mrs. Bonebright has been engaged in the raising of fine poultry, the place being known as the Riverside Poultry Yard, from which she has sold some very fine fowls. Mrs. Bonebright has been with the Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company for the past twenty years in the construction and water supply department. Unto him and his wife have been born six children, of whom five are living: George W. Bonebright, born August 8, 1859, who was by trade a carpenter. He married Lenor Jane Meeks on the 1st of March, 1883. She died June 5, 1885, and he married Miss Katherine L. Johnson on the 24th of July, 1890. There was one child by the first marriage, Bernice Mildred, now the wife of Roy Ruilliard. By the second marriage there are found children -- Gladys, Kenneth, Myrtle I., and Arthur K.
       Harriet M. Bonebright, born February 26, 1861, in Wright county, was married May 8, 1879, to Theobald Closz, who was born April 18, 1856. They reside in Webster City, where Mr. Closz is engaged in the live stock commission business. They had one child, Inez R., born November 16, 1880, but died at the age of seven months. Mrs. Closz engaged in teaching school from the age of seventeen years until her marriage and has been a correspondent for various newspapers, being an active member of the American Press Writers' Association, also a member and the third vice president of the National Liberal Party. Mrs. Closz was a telegraph operator on the Chicago & Northwestern Railway for seven years and his wife acted as his assistant, when they removed to Chicago she learned stenography and typewriting. They resided in that city for ten years and are now living in Webster City. Mrs. Closz now devotes her entire time to literary pursuits. Wallace W., the third member of the Bonebright family was born January 25, 1863, and was married October 15, 1885, to Nettie Bolton, of Illinois, their home being now near Freeport Illinois, where they are engaged in farming. They have four children: Clarence, Roy, Harrison and William. Frank A. Bonebright, born April 16, 1868, is the only member of the family now living at the old home. He has been a member of the Iowa National Guards for over ten years, and enlisted in the Spanish-American war and during the summer of 1898 shared vicissitudes of camp life in Chickamauga park with the Fifty-second Iowa Regiment of Volunteers as corporal. After his return he was elected second lieutenant of Company C, of Webster City, which position he now holds. In 1900 he won the Iowa championship at two hundred yards on the state rifle range at Cedar Rapids, Iowa. He has held for seven years the diamond company medal as well as several others for good marksmanship. He is now employed by the city in the electrical plant. Ella B. Bonebright was born February 2, 1876. She was graduated from the schools of Webster City, with the class of 1893, and taught school for three years, then went to Chicago, where she learned stenography and typewriting, returned home and entered an office, but afterward went to Des Moines, where she took a course as a professional nurse in the Drake Sanitarium. After devoting some time to this work, she was married to Myron L. Sheets, who is engaged in the real estate, loan and insurance business in Yale, Iowa.
William Brewer, the fourth child of Wilson Brewer, married Eva McCowan, and subsequently wedded Estella Comley. By his first marriage he had two children: Mabel, the wife of Frank Pearce [sic], of Webster City, Iowa, and Edward, who married Annie Smithy, resides upon a farm in Hamilton county. Three children were born to the second union, Lulu, Myrtle, and Elva.
Walter Wilson Brewer married Lillie Owen, and after he death he wedded Nora Johnson. The name of his present wife was Mary Burke and their home is in Hot Springs, Arkansas. By the second marriage there is one child.
       Margaret M., Born June 20, 1857, is the wife of F. L. Meeks, who is now a bridge builder and resident of Marshalltown, Iowa, and their children are Myrtle M., an expert stenographer; Carrol C., a bookkeeper, and Leroy L. Until recently Mrs. Meeks has resided on the old Brewer homestead, which still belongs to her. The children are unmarried.
       The deceased members of the Brewer family are: Jackson, John, Julia, and Nancy.
One of the most important works which Mr. Brewer accomplished and one which will last for all time, was the establishment of Webster City. He laid out the town, calling it Newcastle, but afterward the name was changed to that by which the place is now known. It stands as a lasting monument to his memory. In politics Mr. Brewer was a Democrat, but refused to hold office, content to do his duties of citizenship without the rewards of official preferment. His wife long survived him, passing away in 1896, he remains being interred in Webster City. She was then seventy-eight years of age. She was one of the brave pioneer women who, with husbands and fathers deserve great credit for what has been accomplished in Hamilton county. After the death of her husband she was left with the care of her large family of children. Under these circumstances she did everything possible for her to do for them. Mr. Brewer had made judicious investments and at his death was the owner of considerable real estate. Mrs. Brewer lived through the period of pioneer life here, witnessed the great changes which have occurred, and saw the county take its place in the front rank among the counties of the great state. Her mind was filled with many reminiscences of frontier days and she could relate many interesting and amusing incidents concerning the methods of living at that time. Everybody was Mrs. Brewer's friend, and he worth was acknowledged throughout the county. 
Brewer, Wilson (I974)
 
1861        There is some confusion over the birth date of Barbara. The census records seem to be consistent in suggesting that she was born in 1849. However, there is a specific birth date given in Some Descendants of Jesse Adams, 1789-1844. I will leave the birth date as 1849 unless I am provided with other information. [DLL]
       In the 1850 U. S. Census, Barbara is listed as a one year old female. She was born in Illinois of parents who were born in Kentucky (father) and Illinois) mother. She lives with her parents (James W. and Lucinda), two siblings (George T., Jesse), and Isaac M. Henry, an 11 year old, who was born in Ohio, in Old town (South Side), McLean County, Illinois. [JasWA 01.]
       In the 1860 U. S. Federal Census, Barbara Elizabeth is an 11 year old female. She was born in Illinois of parents who were born in Kentucky (father) and Illinois (mother). She lives with her parents (James, Lucinda), two sisters (Mary, Martha) and three brothers (George, Jesse, James) in Hamilton Township, Hamilton County, Iowa. She has been in school and probably speaks, reads, and writes English. [JasWA 02.]
       In the 1870 U. S. Federal Census, Barbara Elizabeth Adams Root is a 20 year old female. She is married to Martin Luther Root. Her role is that of keeping house and being a mother for she has two children, Frank, a son, who is two years of age, and Sara, a daughter, who is 7 months. Both were born in Iowa. Her husband was born in New York; Barbara was born in Illinois. The family lives in Boone Township, Hamilton County, probably near Webster City, Iowa. [MLR 01.]
       In the 1880 U. S. Federal Census, Barbara Elizabeth Adams Root is a 31 year old white, married female. She is married to Martin Luther Root. She was born in Illinois of parents who were born in Kentucky (father) and Illinois (mother). She is keeping house. She lives with her husband, Martin, a son Frank, and three daughters: Butie, Olive, and Cleo. The family lives in Boone Township, Hamilton County, Iowa. [MLR 02.] 
Adams, Barbara Elizabeth (I1808)
 
1862        There seems to be a year difference in the birth of Mary C. Brown. Her death certificate indicates 1858; the 1900 U. S. Federal Census indicates the birth year is 1857. [DLL.]
       In the 1885 Iowa State Census, Mary Catherine Brown Kendall is a 29 year old, white, married female. She is married to Gustavus S. Kendall; his second wife. She was born in Indiana. Her parents were not foreign born. She lives with her husband, Gustavus, two of his children by a marriage to Isabelle C. Bonner (Minnie, John), and two of her children by the marriage to Gustavus (Franklin, Agnes), and a James Brown, who could be her brother, in the town of Alta, Buena Vista County, Iowa. [GSK 11.]
       In the 1900 U. S. Federal Census, Mary C. (Brown) Kendall is a 43 year old, white, married female. She has been married to Gustavus S. Kendall for 24 years. She was born in Indiana of parents born in Wisconsin (father) and Indiana (mother). She has no occupation outside the home. She reads, writes, and speaks English. She lives with her husband, Gustavus, five children ( Franklin, Agnes Little, Blanche, Eva, Ida), Waye Little, the husband of Agnes, and Edward Kesterson, a servant, on Market Street in Aberdeen, Chehalis, Washington. [GSK 13.]
       In the 1910 U. S. Federal Census, Mary Kendall is 53 year old, white, married female. She is married to Gustavus S. Kendall and has been married to him for 35 years. She has given birth to six children, five of whom are living. She was born in Indiana of parents who were born in Wisconsin (father) and Indiana (mother). She reads, writes, and speaks English. Her occupation is that of keeper of furnished rooms. She is employed on her own account. She was not out of work on 15 April 1910 and she was not out of work any weeks in 1910. She rents her home. She lives at 218 Heron Street, 4th Ward, 2nd precinct, Aberdeen, Chehalis County, Washington with a daughter, Ida. Her husband, Gustavus, but listed as George, shows up on another sheet of the 1910 Census, but at the same address. [MCatB 02.]
       In the 1920 U. S. Federal Census, Mary C. (Brown) Kendall is a 59 year old, white, widowed female. She was born in Indiana of parents who were both born in Ohio (?). She reads, writes, and speaks English. She has no occupation outside the home. She rents her house. She lives with her daughter, Ida Taylor and a grandson, Kendall Taylor, at 311 West Wishkah St., Ward 5, Precinct 1, Spokane, Greys Harbor County, Washington. [MCatB 03.]
       In Gustavus S. Kendall's 1919 Hospital Record at the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Mary C. (Brown) Kendall is given two addresses:
              1. 310 N. Heron St., Aberdeen, Washington
              2. 313 Wishka St., Aberdeen, Washington
       Mary Catherine Brown Kendall died on 24 October 1922 at 408 1st Street in Montesano, Grays Harbor County, Washington. She was 64 years, 7 months, and 4 days old. A son-in-law, Philip Charette, the husband of Eva Kendall, paid for the funeral. She is probably buried alongside her husband, Gustavus S. Kendall. That fact has yet to be determined. [MCatB 04.]
       On April 13, 2009, Dale L. Lange called the Montesano, Washington, City Hall to connect with Deanne (1 360 249-3021, Ext. 106) to find the grave of Mary Catherine Brown Kendall upon advice from the Whiteside Family Mortuaries in Montesano. I learned that shel is buried in Wynooche Cemetery, First Edition, Block 8, Grave 5. Gustavus S. Kendall purchased five graves at this site on September 10, 1891. [GSK 15.]
 
Brown, Mary Catherine (I2365)
 
1863        To understand the division of cattle fact, it is necessary bring more of the text of the Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England to bear on the item. On May 22, 1627, a meeting was held by the whole "companie." It is assumed that all of the members of the Colony were involved (including James Adams, who could only have been a small child, establishing the fact that he was born prior to May 22, 1627). The cows and sheep were divided among groups, 13 individuals in a group. As the text reads (Pulsifer, David, ed. (1861). Records of the Colony of New Plymouth of New England, Vol. 12. Boston: William White Press, pp. 9 and 11. [JAe 03.]):
       "At a publique court held the 22th of May it was concluded by the whole Companie, that the cattell wch were the Companies, to wit, the Cowes and the Goates should be equally deuided to all the psonts of the same company and soe kept vntill the expiration of ten yeares after the date aboue written. And that euery one should well and sufficiently puid for there owne pt vnder penalty of forfeiting the same .
       That the old stock with halfe th increase should remaine for comon use to be deuided at thend of the said terme or otherwise as oction falleth out, and the other halfe to be their owne for euer.
       Vppon wch agreement they were equally deuided by lotts soe as the burthen of the keeping the males then beeing should be borne for common vse by those to whose lot the best Cowes should fall and so the lotts fell as followeth/thirteene psonts being pportioned to one lot."
       John Adams, Eliner (Ellen)Adams, and James Adams were in the sixth lot.
       "To this lot fell the lesser of the black Cowes Came at first in the "Ann wth which they must keep the bigest of the 2 steers. Also to this lott was two shee goats."
       After John Adams died between July 01 and 24 October, 1633, and inventory of his "goods & chattel" were brought to Plymouth Court. That inventory is produced below. It was valued at 71 pounds, 14 shillings:
       "An Inventory of the goods & Chattels of John Adams late of Plymouth as they were prised by John Wynslow & John Jenny the 24 of Oct & presented in court upon Oath the 11th of Novbr Anno 9 Regni Dom. nri Carol. &c.
Inpr. 3/4 of a Cow one heyfer & a cow calfe 37 10 00
It 6 Swine 07 16 00
It 28 bushels of Corne 07 00 00
It 1ffether bed & bolster 03 00 00
It 1green Rug 2 blanckets 02 10 00
It 4 pr sheets 02 10 00
It 2 Table cloathes 00 04 00
It 6 Table napkins 00 04 00
It 6 pillowbeers 00 12 00
It 2 pillowes 00 04 00
It 2 Chests & a trunck 00 16 00
It 2 Cushens 00 03 00
It A Chaire 00 03 00
It A Smale wool bed 00 06 00
It 2 Iron pots 00 14 00
It 3 kettles 01 03 00
It 2 ffrying pannes 00 04 00
It pewter vessell 01 10 00
It 1 peece 01 10 00
It debts due for goods sold 03 10 00
It wooden vessell 00 05 00
       71 14 00
       The above menconed Joh. Adams dyed wthout will. ffor the disposing of this estate see the order of Court Novbr 11. Ao Regni Dom. nri Caroli nono &c. Book of Crt Ordrs from 1632 p. 39 (This line is in another hand.) [JAe 06.]  
Adams, John (I2366)
 
1864        When examining both the H.C. and F.C. Pierce Pierce Genealogies, as well as Family Trees on Ancestry.com or Genealogy.com, certain assumptions about the parentage of Martha Adams have been made and stated as fact, namely that James Adams is her father and Frances Vassall, daughter of William Vassall of Scituate, is her mother. Even Dean makes the same error (Dean, Samuel. (1831). History of Scituate, Massachusetts, from Its First Settlement to 1831. Boston: James Loring, p. 325) [MA 05]. I have found that not to be the case. In two sources (Wakefield, Robert S. (1979) "Men of the Fortune: John Adams." The American Genealogist 55:212-14; and, (1879) [MA 06]. "Family of John Adams of Plymouth." New England Historical Genealogical Record 33:410-13) [MA07], Martha Adams has been designated as the daughter of John Adams, a brother to James Adams, and Jane James. Thus, for the purpose of this genealogy, Martha Adams is the daughter of John Adams and Jane James and the wife of Benjamin Pierce of Scituate. This relationship will be established in further text below.
       On page 214 of American Genealogist 55 (1979):212-14, at the bottom of the page, the text reads:
       "Children of John Adams, first three by Jane James
       i. Mary, bapt. 14. Dec. 1656, Scituate, as 'd. John of Marshfield, great grandchild of widdow [sic] James' (Scituate VR). Living unm. 8 Aug. 1672 when mentioned in Kenelm Winslow's will.
       ii. Daughter, b. 17 Feb. 1657 (Marshfield VR 4); bur. 19 Feb. 1657 (ibid. 3).
       iii. Martha, b. 6 March 1658 (Marshfield VR., 5); m. 5 Feb. 1678 Benjamin Pearce (Scituate VR). Martha, wfe of Capt. Benjamin Peirce [note pearce, peirce same name - DLL] d. 3 may 1730 in 73rd Y. (Scituate VR) Benjamin m. (2) 23 July 1718 Mrs. Elizabeth Perry (Scituate VR). He was son of Capt. Michael Peirce (History of Scituate 325). Benjamin and Martha had ten children (Scituate VR)."
       From (1879). "Family of John Adams of Plymouth." New England Historical Genealogical Record 33:410-13. [MA 06.], the following text is quoted from this article:
       James and John Adams are brothers, the sons of Ellen Newton and John Adams.
       "2. James Adams (John) "resided on a farm on the Marshfield side of North River, nearly opposite Mrs. Vassall's , the father of Mrs. Adams...His widow Frances had 150 acres of land laid out to her by the Massachusetts General Court, May 7, 1673...His [James] children were:
       i. William, b. May 16, 1647;
       ii. Anna, b. April 18, 1649;
       iii. Richard, b. April 19, 1651;
       iv. Mary, b. Jan. 27, 1653
       v. Margaret (no record of birth, bapt. March 18, 1654
       3. John Adams (John) settled first in Marshfield, admitted freeman in Plymouth Colony, June 1 1658; appointed constable in Marshfield, June 5, 1660. He subsequently removed to Flushing, Long Island; Children of John and Joane Adams 1st wife, and Elizabeth 2nd wife, Flushing, are many, in fact 15 in all. Only the first three are listed here:
       i. Mary, b. 3.5.1656; d. 19 Feb 1657 Marshfield
       ii. Martha b. 4.1.1658 [Note: Perhaps the Martha Adams, who by Scituate town records married Benjamin Pearce, Feb. 5, 1678. They had ten children, the first names Martha, and the last Adams Pearce - Letter of C. E. Bailey.]
       iii. Rebecca, b. 13.12.1661; m. Henry Clifford of Flushing, 29,3,1686.
       John Adams' first wife appears to have died after the birth of Rebecca.
       In a sketch of John Adams, the father of James and John in Anderson Robert C. (1995, 2000). The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633, Vols. I-III. Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, p. 98, the wife of John Adams is Jane James (Mar VR 1) and Elizabeth ____ {TAG 55:214.)[MA 09.] The Marshfield Vital Records establish the marriage of John Adams and Jane James.
       In the examination of these published records, it is almost certain that:
       1. James Adams and Frances Vassall are not the parents of Martha Adams, the wife of Capt. Benjamin Pierce. Although one can never be completely certain, their progeny did not include Martha Adams.
       2. It appears that John Adams and Jane James were husband and wife; they are the parents of Martha Adams. While one cannot be completely certain, it is the evidence of these three articles that leads me to conclude that the Martha Adams, daughter of John Adams and Jane James is probably the wife of Capt. Benjamin Pierce, m. February 05, 1678.


 
Adams, Martha (I903)
 
1865        While there is very little information in the 1925 North Dakota State Census, this is the first time that Alvin Wacker, a male has appeared in the Karl K. Wacker family. He is five years old. He lives with his parents, Kare (48) and Lisabeth (45), three brothers: Arthur (20), Aron (18), Friedrich (14) and a sister, Lora (10). The family lives in Wishek, McIntosh County, North Dakota. [KKW 02.]
       In the 1930 U. S. Federal Census, Alvin Wacker is a nine year old, white, single male. He was born in North Dakota of parents who were born in South Dakota (father) and Russia (mother). He is in school currently; he reads, writes, and speaks English. He has no occupation outside the home. He lives with his parents, Karl and Elisabeth, and four siblings: Arthur, Aron, Lora, Herold. The family lives on McIntosh Street, Ward 2, Wishek, McIntosh County, North Dakota. [KKW 05.] 
Wacker, Alvin (I2751)
 
1866               Shirley Jensen, 65, Webster City
       Shirley Jensen, 65, of Webster City, IA, died Friday at Southfield Wellness Community in Webster City. A Visitation will be held at the New Testament Church in Webster City on Monday from 5-7 PM. The funeral will be on Tuesday at 10 a.m. at the church with Rev. Richard Laird officiating. Burial will be in the Graceland Cemetery in Webster City.
       She was born to Leland LeRoy Riley and Phyllis Gayle Weedman on May 24, 1943 in Webster City. Shirley graduated from Lincoln High School. She married Darrel Roger Jensen on November 3, 1961. Her last place of employment was at Custom Meats.
       She was a member of New Testament Church of Christ where she was involved with women's fellowship and Bible study. She loved spending time with her family and participating in all the activities at Southfield Wellness Community.
       Survivors include her mother: Phyllis Fister; daughter: Julie (Murray) Coleman; and son: Bryan Jensen all of Webster City; two sisters: Sandy Hetland & Debbie Consier of Missouri; brother: Danny Riley; two grandchildren: Whitney Coleman and Eric Coleman; great grandchild Makenzie Coleman; and former husband and friend Darrel Jensen; as well as stepsister and brothers, nieces and nephews.
       She was preceded in death by her father, stepfather Hank Fister and sister Cindy Helton.
       Boman Funeral Home in Webster City is handling the arrangements. [SR 01.]
 
Riley, Shirley (I2554)
 

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